This boils down to two questions:
1. How are envious and jealous typically used in English?
2. How would a native Korean express those same feelings?
I like Merriam-Webster’s explanation best.
Envious and jealous are interchangeable when describing desiring someone else’s possessions. But jealous has the additional meaning of “possessively suspicious” in the context of romantic relationships.
Feeling 1: Desiring someone else’s possessions
I’m envious of their big, happy family.
크고 행복한 가족이 부럽다.
I’m jealous of her prestigious job.
좋은/명망 높은 직장이 부럽다.
Feeling 2: Possessively suspicious in romance
I was so jealous when she spent the afternoon with him.
함께 오후를 보냈을 때 너무 짜증/질투 났다.
Envious and jealous are both used to describe the feeling of desiring someone else’s possessions, but jealous also has the romantic usage. A native Korean speaker would use 부럽다 to express the feeling of desiring someone else’s possessions. For the possessively suspicious feeling of romantic jealousy, 짜증났다 (literally “I was annoyed”) or 질투났다 would be used, depending on the context. The two key contextual clues are: the intensity of the relationship, and the incident’s proximity in time. 질투 adds a strong feeling of resentment or hatred that 짜증 doesn’t have, and therefore is used more in marriages than in teen romances. A native speaker would think it’s weird to diagnose yourself with 질투 in the present moment. But if the incident in question was firmly in the past, she might use 질투 to describe her emotions at the time.