Signature Sounds

1. The -더라(고) ending, indicating a speaker’s personal experience, is typically pronounced -드라(고).

Examples: 먹더라, 팔더라, 나더라, 이러더라, 하더라, 자더라고, 있더라, 비싸더라, 맛있더라, 사야되겠더라, 좋더라, 죽겠더라, 보이더라.

2. The pronoun 너 (you) is typically pronounced 니. 니 also replaces the possessives 너의 and 네 (your).

Examples: 너는, 네가, 너도, 너부터, 너의 거, 네 거, 너한테.

3. The -면 ending is often pronounced -믄, or -먼. If the following word starts with a vowel, a lone ㅁ consonant is sufficient.

Examples: 오면, 하면, 보면, 보내면, 있으면, 가면, 아프면, 나면, 그러면, 사면, 먹으면, 없으면, 물어보면.

4. 아이, meaning “child”, is an important word. Grandparents pronounce it as an extended 아~ vowel. This rule extends to the diphthong 얘, abbreviated from 이 아이 (this child) and pronounced 야~. Other useful variants include the gender-neutral, 3rd-person pronouns 걔 (그 아이) and 쟤 (저 아이)—“that child”. The younger generations pronounce 쟤 as 지. They also abbreviate the word 자기 as 지, so you must listen carefully for the context.

Examples:  쟤가, 쟤는, 쟤도, 쟤거니까, 쟤한테, 아이들이, 얘는, 얘가, 걔가, 걔는.

5. First-person pronouns 나 (I, or me) and possessives (나의) are often pronounced 내.

Examples: 나랑, 나는, 나보고, 나를, 나의 거, 나한테, 나처럼.

6. The ㄹ consonant in the -을까 ending is silent. Busanians may also drop the ㄹ in the -을게 ending.

Examples: 줄까?, 말까?, 할까?, 갈까?, 갈게, 시킬까?, 해볼까?, 치울까?, 살까?, 보여줄까? 안될까?.

7. The -려(고) ending, indicating intention, is typically pronounced -을라(고), with a lazier ㄹ consonant that bleeds into the previous syllable.

Examples: 가려고, 쓰려, 어떡하려고, 보내주려고, 남기려고, 뭐 하려고, 끓여가려고, 사려고, 먹으려고, 바꾸려고, 하려는가 보다, 입으려면, 일어나려고.

8. The -지 ending is often pronounced as an elongated -제.

Examples: 알지?, 왔지, 봤지, 싫어하지, 그지?, 대단하지?, 놀겠지?, 없지?, 되지?, 그랬지, 맞지, 알았지?, 있지, 되겠지, 했지, 웃기지?.

9. Medial ㄴ consonants are often silent.

Examples: 많이, 아니다, 아닙니까?, 아니고, 아닌데, 아닙니다.

10. In some verb stems, the ㅓ vowel is pronounced ㅐ.

Examples: 먹이세요, 벗겼어, 덤빌래?, 버렸다.

11. Medial ㅕ vowels may be pronounced as ㅣ.

Examples: 만져라, 없어졌는데, 앉혀달라고, 병신아!, 비켜봐, 하여튼.

12. The syllable 거 may be pronounced as 기, or 끼.

Examples: 보는 거다, 할건데, 갈거다, 좋았을 건데, 있을건데, 될건데.

13. The -기에 ending is typically pronounced -길래.

Examples: 왔기에, 없기에, 들어오기에, 가기에, 하기에.

14. In some verbs, the ㅏ vowel changes to an ㅐ.

Examples: 당기다, 한 거야, 창피해서, 막힐까.

15. The syllable 러 is often pronounced 라.

Examples: 그러고, 그러니까, 그러노?, 이러드라, 이럴래?.

16. In some verb stems, ㅓ becomes ㅜ.

Examples: 먹어라, 먹었다, 먹었나?, 줬다, 줬나?, 먹자, 해 버렸다 [해 뿠다].

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